Now that we wrote up a few OVAL statements and used those instead of SCE driven checks (where possible), let's finish up and go back to the XCCDF document and see how we can put weights in place.

The CVE (Common Vulnerability Exposure) standard allows for vulnerabilities to be given weights through a scoring mechanism called CVSS (Common Vulnerability Scoring System). The method for giving weights to such vulnerabilities is based on several factors, which you can play with through an online CVSS calculator.

Giving weights on a vulnerability based on these metrics is not that difficult, but what about compliance misconfigurations?

There is a suggested standard for this, CCSS (Common Configuration Scoring System) which is based on the CVSS scoring and CMSS scoring. Especially the base scoring is tailored to the CVSS scoring, so let's look at an example from the Gentoo Security Benchmark (still in draft):

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The base scoring of a misconfiguration focuses on the following items:

Access Vector (AV)
How can the misconfiguration be "reached" or exploited - Local (on the system), Adjacent Network or Network
Access Complexity (AC)
How complex would it be to exploit the misconfiguration - High, Medium or Low
Authentication (Au)
Does the attacker need to be authenticated in order to exploit the misconfiguration - None, Single (one account) or Multiple (several accounts or multi-factor authenticated)
Confidentiality (C)
Does a successful exploit have impact on the confidentiality of the system or data (None, Partial or Complete)
Integrity (I)
Does a successful exploit have impact on the integrity of the system or data (None, Partial or Complete)
Availability (A)
Does a successful exploit have impact on the availability of the system or data (None, Partial or Complete)

In order to exploit that /tmp is not on a separate file system, we can think about dumping lots of information in /tmp, flooding the root file system. This is simple to accomplish locally and requires a single authentication (you need to be authenticated on the system). Once performed, this only impacts availability.

The CCSS (and thus CVSS) base vector looks like so: AV:L/AC:L/Au:S/C:N/I:N/A:C and gives a base score of 4.6, which is reflected in the XCCDF in the weight="4.6" attribute.

The severity I give in the XCCDF is "gut feeling". Basically, I use the following description:

  • high constitutes a grave or critical problem. A rule with this severity MUST be tackled as it detected a misconfiguration that is easily exploitable and could lead to full system compromise.
  • medium reflects a fairly serious problem. A rule with this severity SHOULD be tackled as it detected a misconfiguration that is easily exploitable.
  • low reflects a non-serious problem. A rule with this severity has detected a misconfiguration but its influence on the overall system security is minor (if other compliance rules are followed).
  • info reflects an informational rule. Failure to comply with this rule does not mean failure to comply with the document itself.

Of course, you can put your own weights and severities in your XCCDF documents. Important however is to make sure it is properly documented - other people who read the document must be aware of the consequences of the rules if they are not compliant.

By introducing weights and severities, administrators of systems that are not compliant (or of a large set of systems) can prioritize which misconfigurations or vulnerabilities they will handle first. And it reduces the amount of discussions as well, because without these, your administrators will start debating what to tackle first, each with their own vision and opinion. Which is great, but not when time is ticking. Having a predefined priority list makes it clear how to react now.

That's it for this post series. I hope you enjoyed it and learned from it. Of course, this wont be the last post related to SCAP so stay tuned for more ;-)

This post is the final one in a series on SCAP content:

  1. Documenting security best practices – XCCDF introduction
  2. An XCCDF skeleton for PostgreSQL
  3. Documenting a bit more than just descriptions
  4. Running a bit with the XCCDF document
  5. Remediation through SCAP
  6. What is OVAL?
  7. Doing a content check with OVAL


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