As capabilities are a way for running processes with some privileges, without having the need to grant them root privileges, it is important to understand that they exist if you are a system administrator, but also as an auditor or other security-related function. Having processes run as a non-root user is no longer sufficient to assume that they do not hold any rights to mess up the system or read files they shouldn’t be able to read.
The grsecurity kernel patch set, which is applied to the Gentoo hardened kernel sources, contains for instance CONFIG_GRKERNSEC_CHROOT_CAPS which, as per its documentation, “restrcts the capabilities on all root processes within a chroot jail to stop module insertion, raw i/o, system and net admin tasks, rebooting the system, modifying immutable files, modifying IPC owned by another, and changing the system time.” But other implementations might even use capabilities to restrict the users. Consider LXC (Linux Containers). When a container is started, CAP_SYS_BOOT (the ability to shutdown/reboot the system/container) is removed so that users cannot abuse this privilege.
You can also grant capabilities to users selectively, using pam_cap.so (the Capabilities Pluggable Authentication Module). For instance, to allow some users to ping, instead of granting the cap_net_raw immediately (+ep), we can assign the capability to some users through PAM, and have the ping binary inherit and use this capability instead (+p). That doesn’t mean that the capability is in effect, but rather that it is in a sort-of permitted set. Applications that are granted a certain permission this way can either use this capability if the user is allowed to have it, or won’t otherwise.
# setcap cap_net_raw+p anotherping # vim /etc/pam.d/system-login ... add in something like auth required pam_cap.so # vim /etc/security/capability.conf ... add in something like cap_net_raw user1
The logic used with capabilities can be described as follows (it is not as difficult as it looks):
pI' = pI (***) pP' = fP | (fI & pI) pE' = pP' & fE [NB. fE is 0 or ~0] I=Inheritable, P=Permitted, E=Effective // p=process, f=file ' indicates post-exec().
So, for instance, the second line reads “The permitted set of capabilities of the newly forked process is set to the permitted set of capabilities of its executable file, together with the result of the AND operation between the inherited capabilities of the file and the inherited capabilities of the parent process.”
As an admin, you might want to keep an eye out for binaries that have particular capabilities set. With filecap you can list which capabilities are in the effective set of files found on the file system (for instance, +ep).
# filecap file capabilities /bin/anotherping net_raw
Similarly, with pscap you can see the capabilities set on running processes.
# pscap -a ppid pid name command capabilities 6148 6152 root bash full
It might be wise to take this up in the daily audit reports.