Capabilities. You probably have heard of them already, but when you start developing SELinux policies, you'll notice that you come in closer contact with them than before. This is because SELinux, when applications want to do something "root-like", checks the capability of that application. Without SELinux, this either requires the binary to have the proper capability set, or the application to run in root modus. With SELinux, the capability also needs to be granted to the SELinux context (the domain in which the application runs).

But forget about SELinux for now, and let's focus on capabilities. Capabilities in Linux are flags that tell the kernel what the application is allowed to do, but unlike file access, capabilities for an application are system-wide: there is no "target" to which it applies. Think about an "ability" of an application. See for yourself through man capabilities. If you have no additional security mechanism in place, the Linux root user has all capabilities assigned to it. And you can remove capabilities from the root user if you want to, but generally, capabilities are used to grant applications that tiny bit more privileges, without needing to grant them root rights.

Consider the ping utility. It is marked setuid root on some distributions, because the utility requires the (cap)ability to send raw packets. This capability is known as CAP_NET_RAW. However, thanks to capabilities, you can now mark the ping application with this capability and drop the setuid from the file. As a result, the application does not run with full root privileges anymore, but with the restricted privileges of the user plus one capability, namely the CAP_NET_RAW.

Let's take this ping example to the next level: copy the binary (possibly relabel it as ping_exec_t if you run with SELinux), make sure it does not hold the setuid and try it out:

# cp ping anotherping
# chcon -t ping_exec_t anotherping

Now as a regular user:

$ ping -c 1
PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.057 ms

$ anotherping -c 1
ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted

Let's assign the binary with the CAP_NET_RAW capability flag:

# setcap cap_net_raw+ep anotherping

And tadaa:

$ anotherping -c 1
PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.054 ms

What setcap did was place an extended attribute to the file, which is a binary representation of the capabilities assigned to the application. The additional information (+ep) means that the capability is permitted and effective.

So long for the primer, I'll talk about the various capabilities in a later post.


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