Sometimes services do not support SSL/TLS, or if they do, they do not support using mutual authentication (i.e. requesting that the client also provides a certificate which is trusted by the service). If that is a requirement in your architecture, you can use stunnel to provide this additional SSL/TLS layer.
As an example, I have a mail server running on localhost, and I want to provide SSMTP services with mutual authentication on top of this service, using stunnel. First of all, I provide two certificates and private keys that are both signed by the same CA, and keep the CA certificate close as well:
- client.key is the private key for the client
- client.pem is the certificate for the client (which contains the public key and CA signature)
- server.key and server.pem are the same but for the server
- root-genfic.crt is the certificate of the signing CA
First of all, we setup the stunnel, listening on 1465 (as 465 requires the stunnel service to run as root, which I'd rather not) and fowarding towards 127.0.0.1:25:
cert = /etc/ssl/services/stunnel/server.pem key = /etc/ssl/services/stunnel/server.key setuid = stunnel setgid = stunnel pid = /var/run/stunnel/stunnel.pid socket = l:TCP_NODELAY=1 socket = r:TCP_NODELAY=1 verify = 2 # This enables the mutual authentication CAfile = /etc/ssl/certs/root-genfic.crt [smtp] accept = 1465 connect = 127.0.0.1:25
To test out mutual authentication this way, I used the following command-line snippet. The delays between the lines are because the mail client is supposed to wait for the mail server to give its reply and if not, the data gets lost. I'm sure this can be made easier (with netcat I could just use "-i 1" to print a line with a one-second delay), but it works ;-)
~$ (sleep 1; echo "EHLO localdomain"; sleep 1; echo "MAIL FROM:email@example.com";
sleep 1; echo "RCPT TO:user@localhost"; sleep 1; echo "DATA"; sleep 1; cat TEMPFILE) |
openssl s_client -connect 192.168.100.102:1465 -crlf -ign_eof -ssl3 -key client.key -cert client.pem
The TEMPFILE file contains the email content (you know, Subject, From, To, other headers, data, ...).
If the provided certificate isn't trusted, then you'll find the following in the log file (on Gentoo, thats /var/log/daemon.log by default but you can setup logging in stunnel as well):
Dec 8 13:17:32 testsys stunnel: LOG7[20237:2766895953664]: Starting certificate verification: depth=0, /C=US/ST=California/L=Santa Barbara/O=SSL Server/OU=For Testing Purposes Only/CN=localhost/emailAddress=root@localhost Dec 8 13:17:32 testsys stunnel: LOG4[20237:2766895953664]: CERT: Verification error: unable to get local issuer certificate Dec 8 13:17:32 testsys stunnel: LOG4[20237:2766895953664]: Certificate check failed: depth=0, /C=US/ST=California/L=Santa Barbara/O=SSL Server/OU=For Testing Purposes Only/CN=localhost/emailAddress=root@localhost Dec 8 13:17:32 testsys stunnel: LOG7[20237:2766895953664]: SSL alert (write): fatal: bad certificate Dec 8 13:17:32 testsys stunnel: LOG3[20237:2766895953664]: SSL_accept: 140890B2: error:140890B2:SSL routines:SSL3_GET_CLIENT_CERTIFICATE:no certificate returned
When a trusted certificate is shown, the connection goes through.
Finally, if you not only want to validate if the certificate is trusted, but also only want to accept a given number of certificates, you can set the stunnel variable verify to 3. If you set it to 4, it will not check the CA and only allow a connection to go through if the presented certificate is one in the stunnel trusted certificates.