While I'm writing this post, my neighbor is shouting. He's shouting so hard, that I was almost writing with CAPS on to make sure you could read me. But don't worry, he's not fighting - it is how he expresses his (positive) feelings about his religion.
Security is, for some, also a religion. They see risks and vulnerabilities and what not everywhere. They're always thinking every system in the world is or will be hacked in the near future and are frantically trying to secure every service they are running - and more. But security is also a real-life issue. If you take a look at the compromised GlobalSign website (who mentions that the website is an isolated one - as I described earlier) I hope that you look at security as being a functional requirement in architecturing and design (and not a non-functional one as many frameworks suggest).
And as you can see from the example, isolating services is not sufficient to prevent a successful exploit of an insecure or unsupported software (the reason why I started with this series). One additional measure that you can take is hardening the server and service.
The act of hardening a server and service is to configure the system so that it is as secure as possible, based on configuration entries. Many vendors and projects offer a security guide (like the Gentoo Security Handbook or the Fedora Security Guide) although most of them add this as part of their standard administrative documents (like the PostgreSQL "Server Setup and Operation" chapter).
But for some reason, you'll find that default installations - even when following the instructions of the vendor - are not as secure as you want it to be. As a matter of fact, if you come in contact with auditors, you'll probably fail any audit if you use a default installation. To help administrators to secure their services, you will find lots of third party sites offering advice on securing the operating system and the services running on it. These guides are what you will need to "harden" your system.
- OWASP, which stands for Open Web Application Security Project, hosts some hardening guides and suggestions together with test scenarios. For front-end application servers (mostly web application servers) you will find lots of interesting resources in the OWASP site (and surrounding community).
- Google is probably the best resource for finding hardening guides for your operating system or service. Just look for "hardening foo" and you will be reading for a week.
- CISecurity, or "Center for Internet Security", is another one with a larger portfolio on hardening guides. Not only does it offer these guides (which it calls "benchmarks"), but organizations can also become a member and as such benefit from tooling that CISecurity supports for the validation of benchmarks (i.e. test if the system/deployment is compliant towards a particular benchmark). It does that by developing the benchmarks in a open specification called OVAL (the Open Vulnerability and Assessment Language) and XCCDF (XML Configuration Checklist Data Format). And CISecurity is not the only one there.
- Another such resource is the National Vulnerability Database (national for US residents, that is ;-) There you can find and download the OVAL/XCCDF resources for various software titles and operating systems. But as you can imagine from the abbreviations, the resources are XML files which are not made to be read by humans.
Although you can use the tool(s) that CISecurity offers, another possibility is to use Open-SCAP, an open source framework for handling SCAP, OVAL, XCCDF and other such open specifications on a system. Its documentation offers a first glance at what it can support.
However, this brings on he disadvantages of hardening services...
- Hardening a system and its services is a time consuming job. Its only purpose is to reduce the impact of exploited vulnerabilities and reduce the "attack surface" so that exploits on unused functions are not possible.
- Hardening a system and its services can impact the service. Make it too tight, and it might not behave anymore like you want it to.
- Also, since there are many, many resources "out there" on hardening, you will have to manage your hardening rules, document them for yourself. It is also advisable to document the rules you are not implementing, if not just for future's sake.
- The hardening guides also require quite some expertise on the service. If you are not experienced with the service but you need to harden it, you can be lucky and just implement what is suggested and hope for the best, but usually you will need to dive deeper in the subject and make (tough) choices.
Although specifications like SCAP exist to help you in your hardening exercises, these are still difficult to manage (do not try to write OVAL/SCAP/XCCDF content in your favorite text editor). Its adoption however by Fedora and RedHat is showing a positive effect on the tools surrounding this specification. I will be writing about SCAP, OVAL and XCCDF later since I too see good use of it in organizations (or even free software projects).
Does that mean that hardening is not beneficial? On the contrary:
- You gain lots of knowledge in the matter, and also forces you to think about integration aspects. Since you are responsible for the service (or the damage that could be made if the service is exploited) being knowledgeable is definitely a good thing.
- A considerable amount of vulnerabilities that are and will be reported on the service (check CVE details to find out about publicly known vulnerabilities, documented in the CVE specification) will not have their effect on a well hardened service. Or put another way, you will reduce the number of real vulnerabilities in your service. You will not be able to exclude all vulnerabilities, but the projected number is high - a fully hardened Windows or Linux system can mitigate up to 90% of the exploits on the operating system. It will considerably reduce the risks that you and your organization are taking.
- A well defined hardening guide will also offer the means to automatically audit or check if the system is still compliant to the hardening setup you envisioned. Scheduled regularly, this will ensure that your configurations are not drifting away, back to a more vulnerable setup, for whatever reason.
- By removing the functions that the service should not offer, you make sure that the use of the service is per the organizations' guidelines. (Internal) abuse of the service is made more difficult, so users are forced to take the regular way. Unlike service isolation, which allows you to keep track of data/service flows, hardening makes sure that side-functionality is not used without your consent. Or to put it more blunt, "Yes I know Oracle DB can be used to schedule tasks on the operating system, but no, you're not allowed to use that function".
And who knows, perhaps by optimizing the configuration, it might run faster with a lower resource footprint ;-) If it does, that's perfect, since the next topic on risk mitigation will have a negative influence on performance: mandatory access control.