I have blogged about checksec.sh earlier before. Jono, one of the #gentoo-hardened IRC-members, kindly pointed me to its --kernel option. So I feel obliged to give its options a stab as well. So, here goes the next batch of OPE-style (One Paragraph Explanations).

~# checksec.sh --kernel
* Kernel protection information:

  Description - List the status of kernel protection mechanisms. Rather than
  inspect kernel mechanisms that may aid in the prevention of exploitation of
  userspace processes, this option lists the status of kernel configuration
  options that harden the kernel itself against attack.

  Kernel config: /proc/config.gz

  GCC stack protector support:            Enabled
  Strict user copy checks:                Enabled
  Enforce read-only kernel data:          Disabled
  Restrict /dev/mem access:               Enabled
  Restrict /dev/kmem access:              Enabled

* grsecurity / PaX: Custom GRKERNSEC

  Non-executable kernel pages:            Enabled
  Prevent userspace pointer deref:        Disabled
  Prevent kobject refcount overflow:      Enabled
  Bounds check heap object copies:        Enabled
  Disable writing to kmem/mem/port:       Enabled
  Disable privileged I/O:                 Enabled
  Harden module auto-loading:             Enabled
  Hide kernel symbols:                    Enabled

* Kernel Heap Hardening: No KERNHEAP

  The KERNHEAP hardening patchset is available here:

In-kernel GCC stack protector support is the same as the Canary explanation I gave earlier, but now for the kernel code. Memory used by the stack (which contains both function variables as well as return addresses) is "interleaved" with specific data (canaries) which are checked before using a return address that is on the stack. If the canary doesn't match, you'll see a nice kernel panic. This is to prevent buffer overflows that might influence the in-kernel activity flow or overwrite data.

When talking about Strict user copy checks, one can compare this with the FORTIFY_SOURCE explanation given earlier. Although not the same implementation-wise (since the latter is gcc/glibc bound, whereas the Linux kernel does not use glibc) this too enables the compiler to detect function calls with variable length data arguments to an extend that it can predict the (should-be) length of the argument. If this is the case, the function is switched with a(nother in-kernel) function that either continues the call, or break in case of a length mismatch. This is to prevent buffer overflows that might corrupt the stack (or other data locations).

Enforce read-only kernel data marks specific kernel data sections as read-only to prevent accidental (or malicious) manipulations.

When selecting Restrict /dev/mem access, the kernel does not allow applications (even those running as root) to access all of memory. Instead, they are only allowed to see device-mapped memory (and their own process memory). The same goes for Restrict /dev/kmem access, which is specifically for kernel memory.

Non-executable kernel pages is similar to the NX explanation given earlier. It makes sure that pages marked as holding data can not contain executable code (and will as such never be "jumped" in) and pages marked as holding code will never be written to.

To explain Prevent userspace pointer deref, first you need to understand the difference between a userland address and a kernel address. Each application holds its own, private virtual address space. Part of that virtual address space is "reserved" for most of the kernel data (in other words, the kernel data is available in each process' virtual address space), the rest is for the application. When interaction with the kernel occurs, a userland address is given to the kernel, which needs to translate it to a proper address (and treat it as data). With Prevent userspace pointer deref, specific checks are made to ensure that the kernel doesn't directly use userspace pointers, because that could be exploited by (malicious) software to trick the kernel into doing things it shouldn't.

Reference counters in the Linux kernel are used to track users of specific objects or resources. A "popular" way to mistreat reference counters (or any counter per se) is to increment them that much until they overflow and wrap around, setting the counter to zero (or a negative number), leading to unexpected results (such as freeing memory that is in use). The Prevent kobject refcount overflow detects this for kobject resources and ensures that no wrap-around happens.

The Bounds check heap object copies checks if particular memory copies use memory fragments within proper bounds. If the memory copy is for a fragment that crosses that bound (for instance because the fragment is too large) the copy fails. This offers some support against overflows, similar to (but not the same as) the use of the stack protector mentioned above.

Disable writing to kmem/mem/port is similar to the Restrict /dev/(k)mem access settings, plus disable /dev/port from being opened.

By selecting Disable privileged I/O, access to the kernel through functions like ioperm and iopl is prohibited. These functions are sometimes used by applications that need direct device access, like Xorg, but if you do not have such applications, it is wise to disable privileged I/O access. If not, any vulnerability in such an application might result in malicious code tampering with your devices.

When Harden module auto-loading is set, processes that do not run as root will not be able to have particular kernel modules auto-loaded. Although this seems strange, it isn't. Suppose you have an application that wants to perform some IPv6 actions. Such applications can call request_module to ask the Linux kernel to load in a particular service. If the kernel supports IPv6 through a module, then it will load IPv6 support (you might have seen traces in your logs about net-pf-10 - well, that's the IPv6 support). You can disable auto-loading completely, but that might not be what you want. With this setting enabled, auto-loading is supported but only for root-running applications.

The added security of Hide kernel symbols is not to prevent activities, but to prevent information to be leaked and (ab)used by malicious users. Kernel symbols are string representations of functions or variables that the kernel offers to kernel users (such as kernel modules and drivers). This is needed because the location of these functions/variables in memory cannot be provided in advance (this is no different from symbols used as explained in the RELRO security setting in my previous posting). By hiding these symbols from any user without sufficiently high privileges (and limit the exposure for high privileged process to well-known locations so these too can be protected by other means) it is far more difficult for malicious users to find out about available functions/variables on your system.

Finally, Kernel Heap Hardening enhances the in-kernel dynamic memory allocator with additional hardening features (double-free protection, use-after-free protection, ...). It tries to ensure proper use of the allocated memory segments and protect against improper access.

From reading all this, you probably imagine why this isn't all enabled by default. Well, many of the settings have implications on how the system behaves. Some restrict functionalities to the root user only (making it sometimes less user-friendly), some disable functionalities that are needed (like the I/O access) or are (ab)used (like the user space pointer deref which is used by many virtualization solutions) while others add some additional overhead (the more you check, the longer an action takes before it completes).

To help users select the proper settings, Gentoo Hardened tries to differentiate settings based on workstation and virtualization usage. So you get most security settings for "No Workstation, No Virtualization" and less for each of those you enable. But of course, like always, Gentoo supports custom settings too so you don't have to follow the differentiation we suggest ;-)

Find something incorrect in the above paragraphs? Or too much sales-speak and too little explanation? Give me a shout (and prove me wrong) ;-)


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